Influencing Factors and Current Approaches to Academic Dishonesty in the Philippines during COVID-19 Pandemic: an Overview
Keywords:academic dishonesty, online learning, modular learning, pandemic, Philippine education
Study purpose. As the Philippines welcomes its new school year, academic dishonesty remains a prevalent concern in the academe. To provide an overview of the situation, this review paper was developed with the goal of presenting current information about academic dishonesty through 1) identification of influencing factors and 2) application of current approaches to academic dishonesty.
Materials and methods. Utilizing review of existing literature, this study described possible internal (laziness or procrastination, lack of proper time management, fear of failure, poor learning capability, motivation, state of mental health, self-attitude, capability, and intention) and external influencing factors (peer involvement, overwhelming academic workload, difficulty of subject/course, limited assistance of teachers, parental expectations, and use of digital technology) and current approaches to academic dishonesty (deterrence theory, rational choice theory, neutralization theory, planned behavior theory, as ignorance or confusion on teacher’s expectations, as learned behavior, and as coping strategy to stressful environment) that will serve as a reference point for researchers in investigating the extent of academic dishonesty in the country.
Results and conclusions. Similarly, findings revealed here can assist teachers, school administrators, and policymakers in crafting more effective solutions to limit or eliminate any forms of academic dishonesty within educational institutions.
Baticulon, R. E., Alberto, N. R., Baron, M. B., Mabulay, R. E., Rizada, L. G., Sy, J. J., . . . Reyes, J. C. (2020). Barriers to online learning in the time of COVID-19: A national survey of medical students in the Philippines. medRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.16.20155747
Fabito, B. S., Trillanes, A. O., & Sarmiento, J. R. (2020). Barriers and Challenges of Computing Students in an Online Learning Environment: Insights from One Private University in the Philippines. International Journal of Computing Sciences Research, 5(1), 441-458. https://doi.org/10.25147/ijcsr.2017.001.1.51
Barrot, J., Llenares, I., & del Rosario, L. (2021). Students’ online learning challenges during the pandemic and how they cope with them: The case of the Philippines. Educ Inf Technol, 26, 7321-7338. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10589-x
Hidalgo, J. L., Cadavis, J. C., Matienzo, A. L., Lanzarrote, K. K., & Rosario, E. M. (2021). A Phenomenological Study on Online Learning Set-up: Challenges and Coping Mechanisms of Senior High Students. International Journal of Research Publications, 91(1), 114-123. https://doi.org/10.47119/IJRP1009111220212580
Salazar, J. M., De Leon, J. P., & Legaspi, O. M. (2021). Experiences on Distance Learning of Selected Undergraduate Students of De La Salle University - Dasmariñas. Academia Lasalliana Journal of Education and Humanities(Special Issue), 43-55. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/358975891_Experiences_on_Distance_Learning_of_Selected_Undergraduate_Students_of_De_La_Salle_University_-_Dasmarinas_COVID_Creases_A_Curriculum_in_Crisis_Special_Issue_in_Academia_Lasalliana_Journal_of_Educatio
Aguilar, M. G. (2021). Academic Dishonesty in the Philippines: The Case of 21st Century Learners and Teachers. International Journal of Management, Technology, and Social Sciences, 6(1), 306-313. https://doi.org/10.5281/Zenodo.5091613
Espina, A. L., & Monte, R. J. (2022). Academic experiences of shs learners studying english in distance modular approach: A phenomenological study. Electronic Journal of Education, Social Economics and Technology, 3(1), 8-14.
Jaca, C. A. (2022). State University Students’ Learning Locations and Remote Learning Challenges During the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 21(2), 195-210. https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.21.2.11
Manalo, F. K., Reyes, V. P., & Bundalian, A. M. (2022). Challenges and opportunities in online distance learning modality in one public secondary school in the philippines. IOER International Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 4(1), 89-99.
Meniano, K. R., & Tan, R. G. (2022). Challenges in Studying Mathematics Using Self-Learning Module During COVID-19 Pandemic. American Journal of Educational Research, 10(4), 182-187. https://doi.org/10.12691/education-10-4-4
Aguilar, M. V., Lineses, E. F., Mazo, R. M., & Ruben, R. L. (2021). A Year After: Online Learning Experiences of the Students of Social Sciences. Academia Lasalliana Journal of Education and Humanities (Special Issue), 15-27. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Maria-Virginia-Aguilar/publication/357336081_A_Year_After_Online_Learning_Experiences_of_the_Students_of_Social_Sciences_COVID_Creases_A_Curriculum_in_Crisis_Special_Issue_in_Academia_Lasalliana_Journal_of_Education_an
Rotas, E., & Cahapay, M. (2021). From stress to success: Exploring how Filipino students cope with remote learning amid COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.33902/JPSP.2021366608
Moralista, R. B., & Oducado, R. M. (2020). Faculty Perception toward Online Education in a State College in the Philippines during the Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) Pandemic. Universal Journal of Educational Research, Horizon Research Publishing Corporation (HRPUB), 8(10), 4736-4742. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2020.081044
Pagaddu, J. V. (2021). The Gender Dimension of Plagiarism: A Case Study. International Journal of English Literature and Social Sciences, 6(1), 263-265. https://doi.org/10.22161/ijels
Lopena, G. L., Padilla, N. D., & Madrigal, D. V. (2021). Walking through a maze: The struggles of accountancy students with online learning in the context of the COVID-19. Philippine Social Science Journal, 4(3), 30-38.
Frigillano, S. D. (2021). Prevalent Academic Cheating Practices Among Pre-Service Teachers. International Journal of English Language Studies, 3(7), 5-14. https://doi.org/10.32996/ijels
Beruin, L. C. (2022). STEM students conceptions of online learning during COVID-19 pandemic: A phenomenographic study. Journal of Pedagogical Research, 4. https://doi.org/10.33902/JPR.202217716
Galang, A., Conde, R., & Sudarsana, I. (2021). Mga kwento ng guro at kwentong mag-aaral: student assessment processes, challenges and solutions In the New Normal Setup Leading To Quality Assurance Inputs. Jurnal Penjaminan Mutu, 7(2), 171-187.
Balba, J. C., & Caingcoy, M. E. (2021). Self-Concept of College Students: Empirical Evidence from an Asian Setting. Technium Social Sciences Journal, 24, 26-37.
Alvarez, H., Dayrit, R., Dela Cruz, M., Jocson, C., Mendoza, R., Reyes, A., & Salas, J. (2022). Academic dishonesty cheating in synchronous and asynchronous classes: A proctored examination intervention. International Research Journal of Science, Technology, Education, and Management, 2(1), 110-122. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6496807
Bautista, R. M., & Pentang, J. T. (2022). Ctrl C + Ctrl V: Plagiarism and Knowledge on Referencing and Citation among Pre-service Teachers. International Journal of Multidisciplinary: Applied Business and Education Research, 3(2), 245-257.
Pandan, M. V., & Lomibao, L. S. (2022). Integrity of Mathematics Classroom Assessment in the New Normal. American Journal of Educational Research, 10(5), 282-287. https://doi.org/10.12691/education-10-5-3
Revilla, R. J., & Libre, L. J. (2022, April 25). Academic Dishonesty: ‘An Intervention on Online Cheating in Administering Test Utilizing Quipper in BSED Science Sophomores. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4093176
San Jose, A. E. (2022). Academic Integrity of Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Mixed Method Analysis. European Journal of Education and Pedagogy, 3(4), 97-103. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejedu.2022.3.4.400
Cardina, Y., Kristiani, & Sangka, K. B. (2022). Qualitative Survey of Academic Dishonesty on Higher Education: Identify the Factors and Solutions. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 6(3), 8705-8719.
Yang, S. C., Chiang, F. K., & Huang, C. L. (2017). A comparative study of academic dishonesty among university students in Mainland China and Taiwan. Asia Pacific Education Review, 18(3), 385–399. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-017-9497-2
Magsambol, B. (2021a, February 2). In remote learning, some students pay someone else to do their classwork. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from Rappler.com: https://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/investigative/students-paying-someone-else-do-classwork-remote-learning-setup/
Magsambol, B. (2021b, March 5). DepEd probes academic dishonesty in distance learning. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from Rappler.com: https://www.rappler.com/nation/deped-probes-academic-dishonesty-in-distance-learning/
Perez, A. J. (2021, December 5). Bayanihan or kopyahan? The rise of online academic cheating groups. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from Sunstar.com.ph: https://www.sunstar.com.ph/article/1915055/davao/local-news/bayanihan-or-kopyahan-the-rise-of-online-academic-cheating-groups
Noriega, R. (2022, March 2). CHED to continue flexible learning as a policy for HEIs. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from GMAnetwork.com: https://www.gmanetwork.com/news/topstories/nation/823703/ched-to-continue-flexible-learning-as-a-policy-for-heis/story/
Patag, K. J. (2022, July 20). Marcos pushes for limited blended learning for coming school year. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from Philstar.com: https://www.philstar.com/headlines/2022/07/20/2196736/marcos-pushes-limited-blended-learning-amid-deped-order-mandating-100-face-face-classes
Paré, G., & Kitsiou, S. (2017). Methods for literature reviews. In Handbook of eHealth Evaluation: An Evidence-based Approach [Internet]. University of Victoria.
Levy, Y., & Ellis, T. J. (2006). A systems approach to conduct an effective literature review in support of information systems research. Informing Science, 9.
Balbuena, S. E., & Lamela, R. A. (2015). Prevalence, Motives, and Views of Academic Dishonesty in Higher Education. Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 3(2), 69-75.
Diego, L. A. (2017). Friends with Benefits: Causes and Effects of Learners’ Cheating Practices During Examination. IAFOR Journal of Education, 5(2), 121-138.
Gutierrez, R., & Padagas, R. (2019). Unveiling a Painpoint in a College Classroom: College Students’ Perceptions of Academic Dishonesty and Some Tests of Correlations. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 7(12), 2634-2641. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2019.071210
Ditona, G. D., & Rico, F. M. (2021). Reading Level of Grade II Pupils Scaffolding for Reading Program of Eastern Schools in Botolan District, Philippines. American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Research, 5(8), 86-94.
De Guzman, C. (2021, December 1). The Philippines Still Hasn’t Fully Reopened Its Schools Because of COVID-19. What Is This Doing to Children? Retrieved August 29, 2022, from Time.com: https://time.com/6124045/school-closures-covid-education-philippines/
Šprajc, P., Urh, M., Jerebic, J., Trivan, D., & Jereb, E. (2017). Reasons for Plagiarism in Higher Education. Organizacija, 50(1), 33-45. https://doi.org/10.1515/orga-2017-0002
Adonis, M. (2020, October 12). Students overwhelmed by tasks under ‘new normal’ way of learning. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from Inquirer.net: https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1346453/students-overwhelmed-by-tasks-under-new-normal-way-of-learning
Hernando-Malipot, M. (2021, May 3). Too tired to teach, too tired to learn: Teachers, students bear the brunt of distance learning. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from Manila Bulletin: https://mb.com.ph/2021/05/03/too-tired-to-teach-too-tired-to-learn-teachers-students-bear-the-brunt-of-distance-learning/
Cabreza, V. (2021, November 4). Baguio schools eye shortbreaks to ease academic stress. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from Inquirer.net: https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1510128/baguio-schools-eye-shortbreaks-to-ease-acad-stress
Hernando-Malipot, M. (2022, January 10). DepEd, CHED urged to implement nationwide academic ease amid a surge in COVID-19 cases. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from Manila Bulletin: https://mb.com.ph/2022/01/10/deped-ched-urged-to-implement-nationwide-academic-ease-amid-a-surge-in-covid-19-cases/
Dangle, Y., & Sumaoang, J. (2020). The implementation of modular distance learning in the Philippine secondary public schools. 3rd International Conference on Advanced Research in Teaching and Education. Retrieved from https://www.dpublication.com/wp co ntent/uploads/2020/11/27 427.pdf
Pinar, F. I. (2021). Grade 12 Students’ Perceptions of Distance Learning in General Chemistry Subject: An Evidence from the Philippines. International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education, 3(1), 44-61. https://doi.org/10.31098/ijtaese.v3i1.509
Robledo, D. A., Catapang, E., Motin, A., & Maalihan, E. (2021). Teaching Beyond Borders: Effectiveness of Heuristic Approach in Teaching Science in Public Secondary Schools in Area IV, Division of Batangas, Philippines. International Engineering Journal For Research & Development, 6(2), 1-13. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3839132
Nabayra, J. N. (2022). Least Mastered Topics in Mathematics and Freshmen Students’ Perception of Mathematics Learning in the New Normal from a State University in the Philippines. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 6(6), 280-289.
Cruz, J. T., Cruz, J. J., Cruz, J. P., & Cruz, J. R. (2021). Optimizing Legal Education through Technology-Driven Pedagogy. International Journal of Learning and Teaching, 7(1), 48-53. https://doi.org/10.18178/ijlt.7.1.48-53
Akers, R. L. (1990). Rational Choice, Deterrence, and Social Learning Theory in Criminology: The Path Not Taken. J. Crim. L., 81(3), 653-676. Retrieved from https://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6670&context=jclc
DiPietro, M. (2010). Theoretical Frameworks for Academic Dishonesty: A Comparative Review. To Improve the Academy: A Journal of Educational Development, 28. https://doi.org/10.3998/tia.17063888.0028.018
CHED. (2020, March 17). Chairman’s Statement. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from Commission on Higher Education: https://ched.gov.ph/chairmans-statement/
Cervantes, F. M. (2020, September 30). House adopts reso on automatic passing mark for K-12 students. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from Philippine News Agency: https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1155247
David, R. (2022, July 24). The phenomenon of ‘grade inflation’. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from Inquirer.net: https://opinion.inquirer.net/155366/the-phenomenon-of-grade-inflation
Gascon, M. (2021, March 4). 99% of students got passing marks? Senators doubt DepEd report. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from Inquirer.net: https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1402754/99-of-students-got-passing-marks-senators-doubt-deped-report
Magsambol, B. (2021c, March 5). DepEd: 99% of students got passing marks because teachers were ‘considerate’. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from Rappler.com: https://www.rappler.com/nation/deped-report-students-got-passing-marks-teachers-considerate/
Yazon, A. D., Briones, M. R., & Callo, E. C. (2021). Correlational Study on the Contextual Factors Influencing The Effectiveness of Flexible Learning: The Case of One State University in the Philippines. International Journal of Management, Entrepreneurship, Social Science and Humanities, 4(2), 146-156. https://doi.org/10.31098/ijmesh.v4i2.671
Samortin, M. B., Corcuera, L. C., Alvarez, A. V., & Palmero, H. R. (2022). Education and the Pandemic: Examining Students’ Remote Learning Experiences in the Philippines. International Journal of Scholars in Education, 5(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/doi:10.52134/ueader.1064312
Maruna, S., & Copes, H. (2005). What Have We Learned from Five Decades of Neutralization Research? Crime and Justice, 32, 221-320. https://doi.org/10.1086/655355
LaMorte, W. W. (2019, September 9). The Theory of Planned Behavior. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from Boston University School of Public Health: https://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/mph-modules/sb/behavioralchangetheories/BehavioralChangeTheories3.html
Ajzen, I. (1969). The prediction of behavior intentions in a choice situation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 5(4), 400-416.
Estrellado, C. J. (2021). Transition to Post-Pandemic Education in the Philippines: Unfolding Insights. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 11(12).
Bautista, J. (2021, September 23). DepEd eyes pact with parents vs online cheating among pupils. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from Inquirer.net: https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1491613/deped-eyes-pact-with-parents-vs-online-cheating-among-pupils
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Laurence Beruin
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.