Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology https://ltmjournal.com/e <p>The <em>Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology</em> publishes didactic research papers in knowledge, abilities and skills development of children, adolescents, and students, which focus on motor and verbal learning.</p> <p><strong>The purpose of the journal</strong> is to provide scientific information and introduce the results of applied and fundamental research on didactics of motor and verbal learning, secondary and higher education, and learning psychology.</p> <p> eISSN 2708-7581 | ISSN-L 2708-7573</p> en-US editor-in-chief@ltmjournal.com (Olha Ivashchenko) support@ltmjournal.com (Taras Tkachenko) Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 3.3.0.7 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Didactics: Peculiarities of Programmed Teaching of the Cartwheel to Girls Aged 14 https://ltmjournal.com/e/article/view/48 <p><strong>The </strong><strong>purpose</strong><strong> of the study</strong> was to determine the peculiarities of programmed teaching of the cartwheel to girls aged 14.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods</strong><strong>.</strong> The study participants were 20 girls aged 14. The children and their parents were fully informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. To solve the tasks set, the following research methods were used: study and analysis of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical observation, timing of training tasks; pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics, factor analysis, nearest neighbor analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The analysis of the effectiveness of the program of teaching girls aged 14 the cartwheel, using different repetition modes (1 – mode of 6 sets 1 time each with a rest interval of 60 s; 2 – mode of 6 sets 2 times each with a rest interval of 60 s) showed that the girls of the first group need fewer repetitions to master the cartwheel than the girls of the second group (p &lt; 0.05). Thus, repetition modes have statistically significantly different effects on the cartwheel motor skill development in girls aged 14. The analysis of <em>similarities</em>&nbsp;revealed that the program components are interrelated.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Factor analysis showed that teaching programs organized by the method of algorithmic instructions are combined in nature. The analysis of <em>similarities</em>&nbsp;revealed that the program components are interrelated. Series of training tasks 2, 3, and 5 are most correlated with one another and provide conditions for teaching girls aged 14 the cartwheel. Optimization of the number of repetitions of the exercise depends on the speed of mastering the exercises of the third and fourth series of training tasks.</p> Mykhailo Kharkovshchenko Copyright (c) 2022 Mykhailo Kharkovshchenko https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ltmjournal.com/e/article/view/48 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Pattern Recognition: Effectiveness of Teaching Boys Aged 14 the Press Headstand and Handstand https://ltmjournal.com/e/article/view/49 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>. To determine the impact of exercise modes on the effectiveness of teaching boys aged 14 the press headstand and handstand.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong><strong>.</strong> The study participants were 20 boys aged 14. The children and their parents were fully informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. To solve the tasks set, the following research methods were used: study and analysis of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical observation, timing of training tasks; pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics, discriminant analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The assumption was made about a significant influence of the modes of alternating exercise repetitions and the rest interval on the effectiveness of teaching boys aged 14 the press headstand and handstand. The study found that the mode of 6 sets 1 time each with a rest interval of 60 s is more effective than the mode of 6 sets 2 times each with a rest interval of 60 s when teaching series of training tasks 2, 4, 5, and 6.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The analysis of standardized, structure coefficients, and group centroids revealed that exercise modes significantly influence the process of teaching boys aged 14 the press headstand and handstand during physical education classes. The results of classification of the groups show that 100 % of the original grouped cases were classified correctly</p> Inna Mugurdinova, Sergii Iermakov Copyright (c) 2022 Inna Mugurdinova, Sergii Iermakov https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ltmjournal.com/e/article/view/49 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Pattern Recognition: Effectiveness of Teaching Boys Aged 15 the Press Headstand and Handstand https://ltmjournal.com/e/article/view/50 <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> To determine the impact of exercise modes on the effectiveness of teaching boys aged 15 the press headstand and handstand.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong><strong>.</strong> The study participants were 20 boys aged 15. The children and their parents were fully informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. To solve the tasks set, the following research methods were used: study and analysis of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical observation, timing of training tasks; pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics, discriminant analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The assumption was made about a significant influence of the modes of alternating exercise repetitions and the rest interval on the effectiveness of teaching boys aged 15 the press headstand and handstand. The study found that statistically significant differences in the number of repetitions are observed in performing all training tasks. The boys aged 15 who use the second mode (6 sets 2 times each with a rest interval of 60 s) need fewer repetitions to master series of motor tasks 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The boys aged 15 who use the first mode (6 sets 1 time each with a rest interval of 60 s) need fewer repetitions to master the second series of training tasks (exercises to master starting and ending positions).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>.</strong> The analysis of standardized, structure coefficients, and group centroids revealed that exercise modes significantly influence the process of teaching boys aged 15 the press headstand and handstand during physical education classes. The results of classification of the groups show that 100 % of the original grouped cases were classified correctly. The study found that the mode of 6 sets 2 times each with a rest interval of 60 s is more effective than the mode of 6 sets 1time with a rest interval of 60 s when teaching series of motor tasks 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6.</p> Kyrylo Siedykh, Olha Ivashchenko, Pavol Bartik, Viktoria Veremeenko Copyright (c) 2022 Kyrylo Siedykh, Olha Ivashchenko, Pavol Bartik, Viktoria Veremeenko https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ltmjournal.com/e/article/view/50 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200 “I Don’t want to Commit Academic Dishonesty”: the Role of Grit and Growth Mindset in Reducing Academic Dishonesty https://ltmjournal.com/e/article/view/44 <p>Online learning is a substitute for learning in the classroom during a global pandemic. The problem that arises is that academic dishonesty behavior increases when online learning takes place. We assess how academic dishonesty occurs during online learning.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> <p><strong>Purpose. </strong>We examine how academic dishonesty occurs during online learning. We review unethical behavior based on growth mindset and Grit as mediator variables.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>. The questionnaire was filled out by 266 students (196 female; 70 male) from universities in Indonesia. Data collection uses three scales, namely the academic dishonesty scale (α = 0.862), the growth mindset scale (α = 0.826), and the grit scale (α = 0.760). The path analysis using the multiple linear regression techniques was utilized to analyze the data in this study.</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>This study demonstrates a negative correlation between growth mindset and academic dishonesty, indicating that the more growth mindset, the less academic dishonesty. Additionally, there is a considerable negative correlation between Grit and academic dishonesty, such that the greater a person’s Grit, the less academic dishonesty there is. Additionally, a positive correlation exists between the growth mindset and Grit. The greater one’s growth attitude, the greater one’s Grit. The primary finding is that Grit mediates the growth mindset’s attitude toward academic dishonesty, implying that the growth mindset affects academic dishonesty by Grit.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The conclusion is that the growth mindset acts as a buffer against academic dishonesty. However, Grit’s position is ideal for mediating the association between growth mindset and academic dishonesty. Thus, a growth mindset can boost students’ Grit, which can help prevent academic dishonesty. We reviewed recommendations for decreasing unethical behavior in online education and its consequences for higher education.</p> Herdian Herdian, Euis Rahayu Copyright (c) 2022 Herdian Herdian, Rahayu Euis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ltmjournal.com/e/article/view/44 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Technology of Teaching Game Techniques in Volleyball at the Stage of Initial Training https://ltmjournal.com/e/article/view/47 <p><strong>Purpose.</strong> To scientifically substantiate the method of teaching game techniques at the stage of initial training to increase the level of technical fitness of young volleyball players.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> <p><strong>Materials and methods. </strong>The experimental research involved 36 young volleyball players born in 2011 – 18 athletes from the CI “Zaporizhzhia Regional Children and Youth Sports School” of the Zaporizhzhia Regional Council (main group) and 18 athletes from the CI “Vilniansk City Children and Youth Sports School ‘Kolos’” (comparison group) during the 2020-2021 academic year.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> In the course of experimental research, the indicators of physical fitness of young volleyball players of the main group significantly increased in 80% of tests. The analysis of technical fitness indicators of young volleyball players of the main group shows that the introduction of the author’s method affects their positive dynamics in the tests: consecutive wall passes from a 3 m distance in 30 s; consecutive overhead passes in 30 s; consecutive forearm passes in 30 s; tennis ball toss over the net to the front line; tennis ball toss over the net to the back line (statistically significant differences, if p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The author’s method of teaching game techniques in volleyball is effective and contains the algorithm of teaching, the levels of mastering game techniques, the stages of teaching game techniques, the sequence of teaching game techniques, the classification, occurrence and prevention of young volleyball players’ errors in the process of teaching game techniques, differentiation of exercises.</p> Eduard Doroshenko, Oleksandr Solovei, Mykhaylo Melnyk Copyright (c) 2022 Eduard Doroshenko, Oleksandr Solovei, Mykhaylo Melnyk https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ltmjournal.com/e/article/view/47 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Impact of Physical Education on Peculiarities of Functional State of 18-22 Year Old Female Students’ Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems https://ltmjournal.com/e/article/view/51 <p><strong>The purpose of the study</strong> was to determine the age-related peculiarities of the functional state of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems of 1<sup>st</sup>-5<sup>th</sup> year female students of a higher education institution.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> The study participants were 200 female students: 1<sup>st</sup> year (n = 44); 2<sup>nd</sup> year (n = 38); 3<sup>rd</sup> year (n = 42); 4<sup>th</sup> year (n = 44); 5<sup>th</sup> year (n = 32). To solve the tasks set, the following research methods were used: analysis of scientific-methodological and medical literature, pedagogical observation, index method, medical and biological methods, ascertaining experiment, and methods of mathematical statistics.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The study found that at the age of 19 there is a significant deterioration in the results of breathhold in the Stange test (49 s) and the Genchi test (38 s) (P &lt; 0.05). At the age of 21, there is a decrease in the Ruffier index (12.4 – “satisfactory”) and the average heart rate after exercise (<em>f</em><sub>1</sub> = 34.7), while there is a decrease in heart rate (<em>f</em><sub>2</sub> = 25.8) after a standard recovery pause (P &lt; 0.05). This indicates that during this period, there occur the most successful compensatory processes of cardiovascular activity. At 21-22 (4<sup>th</sup>-5<sup>th</sup> years of study), there is an increase in heart rate before exercise (<em>f</em><sub>0</sub>), and the Stange test result improves.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The results of comparative analysis show that with age the number of female students with a “satisfactory” result of the Ruffier index increases (59.4%), and a “good” heart result decreases (15.6%). At the age of 21, women have better heart rate, and at 22, they have better results in breath-holding under hypoxia.</p> Sergii Chernenko, Radosław Muszkieta, Iuriy Dolynniy, Oleg Oliynyk, Oleg Honcharenko Copyright (c) 2022 Sergii Chernenko, Radosław Muszkieta, Iuriy Dolynniy, Oleg Oliynyk, Oleg Honcharenko https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ltmjournal.com/e/article/view/51 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0200